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Diehl P. Kotov S. Year Atherton Neil M. Brisdon B.

Table of Contents

LaMar G. Pake G. Benjamin Sievers R.

Sorin L. McLauchlan K. Muus L. Swartz H. Turov E. Wertz J. Translation in French of the 1st Edition by Clarendon Press, re-edited in Talpe Jan, Theory of experiments in paramagnetic resonance , Pergamon Press Standley K. Wyard Sydney J. Year Alger Raymond S. McMillan J. Orton J. Ursu I. Translated from Romanian, forward by A. Atkins P. Ayscough P. Bielski Benon H. Hecht H. Wiley, New York Trost B. Benjamin, New York Williams D. Wilmshurst T.

Year Aleksandrov I. Translated from Russian by Scripta Technica. Assenheim H. Year Baker A. Baker A. II , Heyden, London Dyer J. Hershenson H. Before Squires T. Lebedev Ya. Nachod F. Lindblom Robert O. Ingram D. Van Vleck J. Rankin David W. Rogers John W. Likhtenshtein G. Lukey M. Halliwell B. Maekawa S. Maskill H. Mingos D.

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Crabtree R. Bruno T. Hayashi H. Astruc D.

ESR Facility - Department of Chemistry

Parsons A. Zard S.

Abelson J. Fossey J. Ishii K. Polk C.

Pelikan P. Wigen P. Siegel H. Cooper J. Series of Monographs Waugh J.

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Stan's Library, Vol. T 2 was estimated to be of the order of — ns. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to an extended use of ESR dosimetry in radiation therapy, including development of an alanine-based gel dosimeter and investigation of alternative dosimeter materials. The dosimeter material is often a polycrystalline powder, which can be mixed with a binder and formed to solid dosimeters in the shape of tablets, rods or films. It can also be distributed in a gel, to serve as both dosimeter material and phantom material.

Thus, problems caused by the detector displacing the medium are avoided. The gel developed in this thesis is based on polycrystalline alanine, distributed in an agarose gel. It was tested for calibrated measurements in a brachytherapy situation. One problem to be solved before the gel can be used at an arbitrary irradiation geometry is the low sensitivity of the gel. At present, the sensitivity puts a limit on the spatial resolution at low doses because of the high demands on measurement precision in radiation therapy.

Such a material should form only one radiation induced radical, giving an ESR spectrum with few and narrow lines for easy evaluation. It should also be possible to increase the microwave power and the field modulation amplitude without severe distortion of the spectrum shape. Other important criteria are a low effective atomic number, a signal that is stable over time and, preferably, a linear dose response. The resulting powder was melted and pressed into a film having a thickness of several mils using a Model C Carver Laboratory press Fred C.

Principles and Applications of ESR Spectroscopy |

Carver, Inc; Menomonee Falls, Wis. Both films were irradiated with electron beam radiation under controlled conditions of amperage and exposure time to deliver to a nominal dose of 73 kGy, to activate the alanine. These conditions had previously been calibrated against standards in collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, Md.

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The irradiated film known to contain L-alanine gave the unique and characteristic signal indicative of the presence of an amount of alanine free radical as shown in FIG. The control film failed to produce any spectral response after irradiation as shown in FIG. No spectral response is detected in FIG. The alanine modified formulation was blended directly in a single screw laboratory extruder Baker Perkins Chemical Machinery; Stoke-on-Trent, UK , pelletized and cold molded into a standard 28 mm diameter polypropylene bottle cap to form a sealing liner inside the cap.

Control liners were prepared in the same manner with the exception that L-alanine was not added to the bottle cap liner formulation. The lines were then removed substantially intact from the control and test bottle caps. The analyst performing the ESRS analysis did not know which liners were test liners and which were control liners.

ESR test in Hindi (erythrocyte sedimentation rate test)

Portland cement, sand and water were mixed to form a slurry. To this slurry was added ppm of L-alanine based on the dry weight of the slurry.